Beginning a thesis might be a difficult task for you. You may have so many questions in your mind about how you are going to start your thesis? What will be the thesis paper structure? What type of information should a single chapter contain?
Every educational institution has a different thesis paper format and structure; that’s why the first step is to ask for their requirements so that it will be easy for you.
Here we have given you a basic structure of the thesis below;
Thesis Paper Structure and Format
1. Title Page
You will start your thesis with a title as well as a subtitle, your department, your institution, author, date of delivery of thesis, research advisor and mentor or mentors, as well as their email address along with their institutions.
- It should be printed on 8 ½ x 11-inch white paper.
- Original signatures of committee members.
This is normally short and is the review of your whole thesis. An abstract is a separate document and is not confined to your thesis. The abstract should be printed on 8 ½ x 11-inch paper, which is white, and without any page numbers, having at least one copy. They should also have the signatures of faculty advisors.
A good abstract is readable, concise, and explains in just one line why it is important.
A good abstract should be of the following;
- Approximate words should be in between 300- 400 words and length 1-2 paragraphs.
- Information written in the title should not be narrated.
Although most universities recommend writing abstracts in the end when you have done everything else because it will be easy for you to write having an idea of what you have written in the rest of your thesis.
3. Table of Content
- All the subheadings and headings should be listed with page numbers.
- Corner subheadings.
Here we have given you an example of what your table of content may look like.
- Title page
A table of contents should be created with a list of figures and a list of tables.
List of Figures
In the list of figures, it should include a title and page numbers of all figures.
List of Tables
In the list of tables, it should include all table page numbers.
For writing a good introduction, you need to know the information written in the rest of the body of the paper. So before writing an introduction, finish the rest of the paper, then start your introduction. In this way, you will know what you have to write in this introduction section.
An introduction is an overview of the main points of your thesis, and this is the section that will make an impression on the reader and motivate them to continue reading the whole paper.
The introduction is longer than the abstract. The next paragraph of the introduction should include some previous research.
The introduction section includes the following;
- Topic background
- Include hypothesis
5. Literature Review
The literature review is often a part of the introduction, although you can also make a separate section of it. It is an examination of your previous research on the related topic, indicating that there are gaps that will be filled by your research.
The main word in the literature review is evaluation. Here are some literature review tips;
- Use a broad collection of sources.
- Demonstrate both sides of tory research.
- Submit everything in an apparent and structured manner.
Methods are particularly the easiest section of your thesis. This chapter shows the method that you select to gather relevant data for your research, how this data is interpreted and explains why you selected this method is. In other words, when, what, where, why, and how you did to get the results.
This shows how your method of research is done to answer your questions also explains what the hooks of your approach are and how you have diminished them.
Following are the things that should be included in the method section;
- Explanation of your procedures, materials, and theory.
- Complete information so that your readers can believe your results
- Information by other researchers to duplicate your experiments (for example, all the adjustable and optional parameters on any instrument or sensors that they use to collect the data).
Results include what you have found out according to your hypothesis or research questions. They are observations of actual statements, which include tables, statistics, and graphs.
Simply, it contains research facts without including analysis because this is mostly included in the discussion section. People sometimes make discussions and results combined, but it is not.
If you want to make your result better, visualize your results clearly by using graphs and tables, particularly when summarizing.
It means keeping to the same format so that it can be helpful for readers to compare the data and evaluate it.
- Results are the indication of information on the variations range.
- Always mention positive results as well as negative results and do not interpret the result (that should be included in the discussion chapter).
- Use subheadings.
- Important results should be written clearly when starting results paragraphs.
This section includes your interpretation and your analysis of the data that you have collected, remarks on the results, and clarifies what your result means. So start with some sentences and explain the important results. This discussion chapter is a short essay.
A discussion section is the opportunity to indicate that you understand your result’s significance as well as findings.
- Shows your study’s limitations
- Analyze your results in a broader context and show expected and unexpected results.
- Give a proper explanation for unexpected results.
- Comment any unanswered questions.
- Several hypotheses.
- Involve line or evidence upholding each interpretation.
This discussion chapter should include references to working and need the background to interpret results. It should also be related to your results to the previous theory or research. Although discussion or interpretation sections are long, you can make it brief by dividing this section into statements with the help of subheadings.
This section may also involve future research and conclusions.
The conclusion is the most crucial chapter of your thesis. In this, you show that the research objectives have been accomplished and how you contribute to the parties involved with your research.
In this section, the limitations of your study should be pointed out because pointing out and the realization of your limitations provides a better leveling of your thesis.
You can also talk about learning or suggestions for research as well as future directions.
In this section, you should confine your thesis nicely and clearly show what you have done, what your learnings were, and what the result was.
Although, the Conclusion also includes the following;
- From your observations, your strongest statement that you can make.
- Don’t repeat anything from the introduction, abstract, or discussion.
- Contains broader significance of your results.
- If you meet the reader of your thesis later, what do you want your reader to remember about your paper?
- It should be included when suitable.
- Directions for future examination on relevant topics or your thesis.
- Additional research for better understanding.
- Corrective actions to interpret the problems
Anyone who has helped you in doing your thesis, for example, your advisor or advisors;
- Technically (for example, supplies, materials, etc.).
- Intellectually (for example, advice or assistance).
- Financially ( for example, travel grants or departmental support).
- Refer to all the concepts, ideas, and data you have collected.
- Back up your statements with a reference or your data.
- All these references should be listed.
- It is favorable to put the single author initials behind their last name, for example, Hays, J (1996) undergraduate research at following…
- Your appendix should include your data.
- You can include a major article as an appendix.
- If you have reviewed many references, but you have not mentioned them in your thesis, you can add them here.
- List of all the types of equipment that have been used for experiments.
A basic thesis paper has an Introduction, Abstract, Literature review, methods, results, discussion, conclusions section.
You can check the pdf format of a thesis structure here.